Introduction

 The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute has been producing hydrological yearbooks in the form in which this publication appears, since 1992. The yearbook does not offer the complete results of all measurements and observations in the respective year, as was the case in the earlier yearbooks. The scope and frequency of hydrological measurements and observations have increased significantly, and their digitised results are stored in the Institute’s database. It is not in line with the commercial policy pursued by the Institute, an organisation co-financed from public funds, to publish all data. Data gathering and processing is a costly exercise, and the Institute has to meet some of these costs using its own resources, i.e. income from its commercial activities.

The purpose of the yearbook is to provide wider professional circles with descriptions and assessments of the hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic in the respective year. The content of the yearbooks has remained constant in recent years, and they continuously maintain their combination of text with tabular and graphic presentation. The stable appearance of the yearbooks is intended to help the users to compare, on an ongoing basis, changes in the water regime in time and space. Nevertheless, our efforts focus on improving the yearbook continuously, and this year also sees several changes. For the first time this year, the whole yearbook has been produced in the PDF format on CD-ROM, which is enclosed with every hard copy of the yearbook.

For the most part, the yearbook presents an assessment of the whole calendar year 2004. Where some assessments and annual characteristics are related to the hydrological year, i.e. the period from 1 November 2003 to 31 October 2004, this is highlighted in the text. Water quality characteristics relate to the calendar year.

The 2004 Hydrological Yearbook of the Czech Republic comprises six separate chapters and two appendices. The first chapters are devoted to the hydrological description of the year and assessment of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the water regime. This edition of the yearbook is the very first in which this assessment is already based on the results obtained from the hydrological balance assessment the Institute prepares under public notice no. 431/2001 promulgated by the Ministry of Agriculture. Also the heading and, to a certain degree, the form of chapters two and three have changed slightly. Chapter four contains information on the options and ways of ordering data from the Institute’s hydrological database. The content of chapter five varies; as usual, it is devoted to selected ‘hot topics’ of the respective year. Chapter six contains a list of relevant papers and studies published in 2004. The list of sites and variables observed in 2004, a part of Appendix PI, is now included only on the CD-ROM. The CD-ROM also contains an updated and complete list of hydrological catchments, including details on their square area and hydrological order.

The yearbook has been produced in the Czech language only. Speakers of other languages will find a brief English summary in the introduction to each chapter. Tables are included in the text, while graphs and maps appear at the end of the chapter. The symbols and abbreviations used are summarised and explained at the end of the introductory list of tables, figures and maps. Table, figure and map headings, and in the list of publications the titles of hydrological papers and studies, can also be found in English.

Chapter I. „Hydrological Characteristics of 2004“

Chapter I provides a chronological description of the meteorological and hydrological situation in each calendar month of 2004 and the overall conditions prevailing in 2004 as regards temperature and precipitation, and surface and groundwater runoff. This chapter is largely based on operating reviews produced by the Institute’s forecasting offices, but the characteristics of the whole year and its individual months already use data from the Institute’s complete regime database.

Chapter II. „Hydrological balance water quantity assessment“

Chapter II offers an assessment, in terms of space and time, of the elements of the country’s hydrological balance assessment (water budget) viewed chronologically, and of the variability of precipitation, runoff, groundwater, and base runoff.

Chapter III. „ Hydrological balance water quality assessment “

Chapter III contains evaluation of surface and groundwater quality, and also that of the regime of suspended sediments and sediments for selected watercourses.

Chapter IV. Processing of Data and their Disposal to Public

The first part of this chapter outlines real time information that is provided by Hydrological Forecast Centres of the CHMI in Prague and in the Regional Offices. The second part informs about regime data and characteristics, which can be ordered from the CHMI.

Chapter V. Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

The second last chapter of the yearbook is usually centred on chosen topical themes of the given year and on regional problems. It provides scope for the presentation of work of individual hydrological Departments of the Headquarters and Regional Offices of the Institute. In the past yearbooks, the following contributions have been published so far:

1994   Hydrological Service of the Regional Offices of the CHMI

             Territorial distribution of the responsibilities of the Regional Offices

             Specific activities of the hydrological service at the Regional Offices

1995   Hydrological Service of the Regional Offices of the CHMI

             Monitoring of suspended solids on the Trkmanka River at Bořetice

             Extreme floods on the tributaries of the Volyňka and Blanice Rivers

             Activities of the Hydrology Department at the Ostrava Regional Office in 1995

             Snow cover regime and its assessment in the catchment of the Nýrsko Dam

             Flood on Červený Brook - June 1995

1996   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

          ■    Homogeneity and anthropogenic changes in the 1931–1990 flow series

          ■    Hydrological service of the Institute’s Regional Offices

              · Activities of the Hydrology Department at the Prague Regional Office in 1996

              · Activities of the Hydrology Department at the České Budějovice Regional Office in 1996

              · Co-operation with Federal Republic Germany on transboundary watercourses

              · Assessment of groundwater regime in the Eastern Bohemian region in the 1996 water year

              · Groundwater level observations in hydropedological cross-sections in the valleys of the Morava and Dyje Rivers

              · Extreme spring flood on the Opava River Catchment

1997   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

             Ice phenomena on the catchments of the Jizera, Sázava and Berounka Rivers in the winter of 1997

          ■   Flood of July 1997

              · The hydrograph of the flood on the upper Elbe River catchment

              · The hydrograph of the flood on the Odra River catchment

              · The hydrograph of the flood on the Morava River catchment

1998   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

             Catastrophic flood in the Rychnov district in July 1998

             Experimental catchment of the CHMI in the Jizerské Mountains

1999   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

             New principles of monitoring of the quality of surface waters

              · Goals of the proposed net of the complex monitoring of water quality in streams

              · Pilot project „Complex monitoring of water quality according to directives of EU“          

              · Design of the network of complex monitoring of water quality in streams

              · The organisation of the network of complex monitoring of water quality in streams

             Flow measurement with the streamgauging vehicle of the CHMI

2000   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

          ■    Assessments of extreme floods for the evaluation of dam safety

          ■    March 2000 flood

          ■    New ideas and visions for the development of hydrology in the new century (the 5th Hydrological Days)

          ■    Evaluation of 100 year series of hydrological observation

2001   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

             Complex CHMI hydrological station Nespeky

             CHMI forecasting and warning service

             Hydrological operative multipurpose system – HOMS

2002   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

             ■    Catastrophic flood in August 2002

2003   Topical and Regional Hydrology Problems and Tasks

          ■   Hydrological evaluation of drought in 2003

          ■   Flood in Sloup in the Blansko area

          ■   Hydrological balance

In this year’s edition this particular chapter looks again at several selected topics, chosen in relation to the most current tasks and events of 2004. The first topic deals with the new watershed contours – the Institute has been developing them for several years. The second topic presents new methodological approaches to deriving extreme theoretical flood waves. The third topic describes the new ADCP mobile instrument for measuring current profiles and the experience with its operation. The last topic outlines the freezing of the River Vltava in Prague in January 2004; under the current conditions, where the thermal regime in the Vltava is affected by the Vltava Cascade (a series of dams), ice on the River Vltava is a most extraordinary phenomenon.

Chapter VI. „Review of Hydrological Papers and Studies in 2004

The last chapter contains as usual the review of hydrological papers and studies in the given year. For chosen titles, annotation is quoted, which describes the aim and results of the quoted papers. Bibliography from the years 1991–2003 can be found in the preceding yearbooks or one can turn to the CHMI Centre of Information Services in Prague-Komořany.

Appendix PI. „Review of Hydrological Observations in 2004

For the first time in this year’s edition of the hydrological yearbook, the hardcopy appendix contains merely the text, with an overview of the numbers of water quality monitoring sites and stations, explanatory notes, and a list of the hydrological order of the main catchments and hydrogeological zones. The appendix also lists the variables measured at surface water and groundwater quality monitoring sites, and clearly laid-out maps of observation sites, sorted by type. Complete lists of all water gauging stations, groundwater observation sites and water quality monitoring sites and stations are only included in the CD-ROM.

Appendix PII. Survey of CHMI Hydrological Work Places

This appendix contains updated addresses and contact details for the Institute’s offices.


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